Firewall management is a vital component of network security. As cyberattacks increase, organizations need to deploy a reliable firewall management system that can protect their data, infrastructure, and devices.

Therefore, in this in-depth guide, we'll explore firewall management, the main types of firewalls, and other important components of firewall management.

What is firewall management?

Firewall management is the process of configuring, monitoring, and maintaining a firewall to ensure that it is functioning properly and providing effective security to an organization's network. It involves setting up the firewall with the appropriate rules to allow or block traffic from specific sources or destinations.

In addition to rule management, firewall management also involves:

  • Monitoring the firewall logs to detect potential security breaches
  • Investigating suspicious traffic
  • Responding to security incidents.

Regular testing and auditing of the firewall configuration and rules are also important to ensure that the firewall provides the expected level of security.

Three main types of firewalls

Different firewalls serve different purposes and are designed to operate at different levels of the network stacks. Organizations can deploy three main types of firewalls to protect their networks.

Next-generation firewalls

Next-generation firewalls (NGFWs) are network security devices that go beyond traditional firewalls to provide advanced security features and capabilities. They combine the functionality of a traditional firewall with additional features like deep packet inspection, intrusion prevention, application awareness, and more.

One of the main advantages of NGFWs is their ability to identify and block advanced threats, including malware, botnets, and targeted attacks. This is done by inspecting the contents of network traffic at the application layer rather than just examining packet headers. It allows NGFWs to identify and block specific applications, protocols, and behaviors that attackers may use to bypass traditional firewall defenses.

Proxy firewalls

A proxy firewall also operates at the application layer and is designed to provide additional security features beyond traditional firewalls. This type of firewall intercept and analyze traffic at the application layer, where they can filter and block traffic based on the content of the packets.

Acting as intermediaries between the organization's network and external networks or the internet, proxy firewalls process network traffic on behalf of the client. When a client requests access to a resource, the proxy firewall intercepts the request, which determines whether the request should be allowed or blocked based on a set of predefined rules. This means that the requests are filtered before they reach the organization's network, providing an additional layer of security.

Traditional firewalls

Traditional firewalls monitor and control incoming and outgoing traffic at the network or transport layer. Data packets are allowed or blocked based on factors like source and destination IP addresses, port numbers, and protocols.

The whole system works by comparing network traffic against a set of predefined rules like source and destination IP addresses, port numbers, and protocols. Traditional firewalls can also be classified as packet filtering and stateful firewalls. The former examines individual traffic packets, while the latter only allows traffic that meets very specific criteria.

Components of firewall management

Firewall management involves several components to ensure that it provides effective network security.

Policy control

Firewall policies specify the rules for allowing or blocking traffic. These policies are typically based on factors like source and destination IP addresses, port numbers, and protocols. It allows configuring firewall policies and rules in such a way as to control network traffic and ensure that it complies with the organization's security policy.

Graphical interface

A graphical interface allows network administrators to configure and manage the firewall easily. It simplifies configuring firewall rules and policies, allowing administrators to focus on other security management tasks.

Device and threat management

Device and threat management involve monitoring and analyzing network traffic to detect and respond to threats in real time. These systems alert security teams and network administrators of potential threats and recommend addressing them.


Scalability is a critical component of firewall management. Organizations must be able to adjust their firewall infrastructure to accommodate increasing network traffic and new devices.

Third-party integrations

Third-party integrations allow organizations to integrate their firewall with other security management systems, such as intrusion detection systems, to provide comprehensive security.

How to manage firewall rules

Firewall rules management is an important aspect of ensuring the security of your network.

  • Determine your security requirements. Figuring out what you need to protect and the required protection level will help you decide which firewall rules should be created.

  • Create baseline policy. A baseline policy should outline the rules that must be followed. This should include rules for inbound and outbound traffic, specifying which protocols and ports should be allowed or denied.

  • Review existing rules. Reviewing existing rules should help to determine if they're still necessary and effective.

In general, firewall policies and rules should be updated regularly to ensure they comply with security policies and regulations.

Firewall management best practices

List of Firewall management best practices

Proper firewall management guarantees that the IT infrastructure will remain secured from threatening traffic external to the network. For this reason, following the best practices when setting up and managing firewalls is a good idea.

Keeping track of authorized users

Unauthorized access to sensitive data or systems can result in significant harm, including data theft, reputational damage, and legal liabilities. By keeping track of authorized users, organizations can ensure that only those with proper access rights are allowed to enter the system, reducing the risk of security breaches.

Auditing firewall policies and rules

Auditing firewall policies and rules is crucial for maintaining a secure and compliant network environment. It can help organizations identify and address potential security gaps, optimize firewall performance, and demonstrate due diligence in protecting systems and data.

Blocking all access by default

Blocking all access by default is recommended because it helps to reduce the risk of unauthorized access to systems and data. Unless specifically authorized, no traffic is allowed into or out of the network. Frequently, this approach is called the principle of least privilege, which grants users only the minimum level of access necessary to perform their tasks.

Following firewall updates

Regularly updating the firewall is critical to ensure it protects the organization's network effectively. Recent updates often address security vulnerabilities, bug fixes, and new features. This makes it easier to ensure that it provides maximum protection against all kinds of potential risks.

Key takeaways

Firewall management is critical to protecting an organization's network from cyber attacks, malware, and other threats. It involves configuring, monitoring, and maintaining the firewall to ensure it's up to date and effectively protecting the organization from potential security breaches.

Managing firewall rules involves:

  • Analyzing network traffic

  • Configuring firewall rules

  • Monitoring network traffic

  • Updating firewall configurations and auditing firewall policies.

To ensure effective firewall management, organizations must follow best practices like keeping track of authorized users, auditing firewall policies, blocking all access by default, and following firewall updates.